These openings are the Danish Gambit, the Dutch Defense, the Elephant Gambit, the English Opening, the Englund Gambit and the Evans Gambit. These openings contain 12 gambits, some of which you may want to try out yourself.
As usual the idea is to give up material for a lead in development or a positional concession from your opponent. We'll start with the Danish where two pawns are sacrificed for a big lead in development.
The Danish Gambit or Nordic Gambit sees you gambit not one pawn but two. This gives you a huge opening initiative and you must capitalize. Your two Bishops are already in prime position on key diagonals bearing down on the Black Kingside.
Different lines see you castle on the short side or long. Nc3 on the way to Nd5 is a common theme as the pressure on f6 builds. Black often experiences difficulty in prepping castling Kingside. This is due to pressure on g7 but Black can sometimes deal with this with ...Bb4+ winning a tempo.
Qb3 is another thematic move. This threatens f7 directly and prepares the long castle. If you have Black the best way to neutralize the growing threats is to give back a pawn with 5...d5. This allows development with the recovery of one of those tempi. Don't worry, there are ways to counteract the Danish.
The Halasz Gambit is a little back road in the Danish. After your first gambit is accepted you can proceed with 3.c3 and head for the Danish. On the other hand you can advance on the other side with 3.f4. This brings about the starting position of the Halasz Gambit.
This move allows Black to support his pawn on d4 and he usually does this by 3...Nc6. This move scores respectably for Black restricting White to a success rate of barely more than half.
His second most played move, 3...d5, is even more successful. White wins just 3 games in 10 in this line. The move appears 43 times in my database.
Many of the players playing the Halasz Gambit, which appears 219 times, are in the 2100 - 2300 range. Results from the other main replies, 3...Bc5, 3...Bb4 and 3...d6 are much less encouraging for Black.
The Krejcik Gambit is an attempt to deflect the f5-pawn from it's main duties in the Dutch Defense. When Black plays the Dutch Defense, 1...f5 stakes a claim to e4. Black is preventing you from playing that move.
White's plans in this opening will revolve around preparing the e4 advance. There are many conventional ways of achieving this. The King's Rook will come to e1 after castling. The Bishop is sometimes fianchettoed to support e4 too.
2.g4 is a much quicker, less conventional way to facilitate the e4 advance. You give up a g-pawn to drag the f-pawn out of position. After 2...fxg4 you can then play e4 immediately with the intention of castling long and taking the semi-open g-file for your Rook. Black does not necessarily have to accept. He could support f5 with 2...d5, 2...d6 or 2...e6.
The Staunton Gambit is another way to liquidate Black's Dutch f-pawn. This time you leave your Kingside intact and instead give up your e-pawn in the center. You will end up after f3 with a formation very familiar to Blackmar-Diemer fans.
Now you will develop with a mind to build up pressure against e4. Nc3 and Bg5 to pin Black's f6-Knight later are thematic moves. You will often castle Queenside and throw your forces on the other wing at Black's King.
As Black you can accept the gambit by 2...fxe4 with a solid game based on shoring up your pawn. Otherwise you can simply support f5 by means of 2...d6 or 2...e6. Finally you could let f5 go with a move like 2...c6. This drags the e4-pawn on to the f-file where you will hope to eventually round it up.
The Lasker Gambit is a line in the Staunton Gambit. After 1.d4 f5 2.e4 fxe4 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 c6 5.f3 with that Blackmar-Diemer feel. This gambit can also be played after 4...g6.
So how does the Blackmar-Diemer set-up fare in this position? Now Black has a fully stocked center and is only missing his f-pawn. There'll be none of the patterns from the Ryder Gambit where White draws the Black Queen into the open by sacrificing his d-pawn.
Indeed castling Queenside will not now give White any play on the d-file. Saying that castling long will still be on the cards after the Queen goes to d2. Then an attack on the Black Kingside is in the pipeline.
The Elephant Gambit is a novel way to treat the well worn opening moves of 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3. If you want a break from major openings like the Ruy Lopez, Italian Game or Scotch Game this could be for you.
You may want to liven things up with a gambit. It could be that you don't trust the Latvian Gambit with 2...f5. The Elephant might be what you're looking for and 2...d5 brings it about.
White can accept the gambit with 3.Nxe5 after which you'll choose between 3...Bd6 or 3...dxe4. White could instead refuse the gambit with 3.exd5 which you can answer either by the 3...Bd6 or 3...e4, kicking the Knight.
The Bellon Gambit is a neat trick that appears in a well known line of the English Opening. You can play 3...e4 in an apparent attempt to harass White's f3-Knight. 4.Ng5 solves the problem and your e4-pawn faces being lost pretty soon.
Now comes the neat little trick. You can play the shocking 4...b5!? Suddenly White finds himself in a bind. 5.cxb5 allows 5...d5 supporting e4 and giving Black a fearsome center. 5.Nxe5 allows 5...c6 6.Nc3 d5.
Even 5.b3 fails against 5...b4 6.Nbxe4 h6 7.Nxf6 Qxf6. So why haven't we heard more about the Bellon? Well a solution was found. 5.d3 solves all White's problems. But then how many of your opponents are likely to find this not so obvious move?
The Halibut Gambit is another way to disrupt the English opening by deflecting the key c4-pawn. You may follow up 2.cxb5 with 2...a6 and aim for an accelerated Benko Gambit. If you can get this ...Ba6 will frustrate White's Kingside development.
White can refuse the gambit with moves like 2.Nf3, 2.d3 or 2.d4. The first of these will probably lead to a game that isn't English in nature.
It might be useful to think of this as White playing the Wing Gambit except a tempo behind. It's not a line that White should worry about unduly. If you have the White pieces you must take care and favor development over the winning of any further material after 2.cxb5.
The Englund Gambit is a dubious effort that may (or may not) work for you in your games. The main purpose of this opening is to prevent White from closing the game with 1.d4. The immediate 1...e5 lets White know that you will insist an open game.
White should take on move 2 and after 2...Nc6 he will defend e5 with 3.Nf3. Next you play the somewhat surprising move 3...Qe7 attacking the pawn again. White can play 4.Qd5 or defend his pawn a second time with 4.Bf4. 4.Qd5 f6 5.exf6 Nxf6 brings the game to the main starting position of the Englund.
After 4.Bf4, the reply 4...Qb4+ is a tricky test for many players. He should play 5.Bd2 here, giving back the pawn, and he will be fine. After the apparently dangerous 5...Bb4, 6.Nf3, the only move, covers everything.
The apparently loose Bishop on f4 however may panicky him into making the mistake of playing 5.Qd2. This move just loses plain and simple but if he chooses the correct defense you may face a long and difficult struggle.
The Charlick Gambit is a line in the Englund Gambit that looks for a completely open center. As Black you would like White to accept with 3.exd6 and you will play 3...Bxd6.
For your pawn you have the first minor piece into the fray. What's more is your light square Bishop is opened and ready to go. Now you need to play with energy and pressurize White into mistakes. No time to procrastinate when you're a pawn down.
Trouble is White often declines the Charlick. His main options in the field are 3.c4, 3.e4 and 3.g3. The first two can lead to slow-burning Queenless games when Black plays ...dxe6 leading to the Queen exchange. With 3.g3 White puts his light square Bishop on the long diagonal to protect his King from your powerful Bishops.
The Evans Gambit saw it's heyday at the top table of chess during the Romantic Era in the 19th Century. It fits in perfectly with the flavor of the day. 4.b4 suddenly injects life into the quiet Italian Game.
Your idea is to give up this b-pawn and in return gain a couple of tempi. This will give you a big lead in development and a good initiative. You will castle soon and have more pieces in play than Black. You will also enjoy a space advantage.
Chess evolved into positional science and the Evans Gambit, along with many other Romantic opening systems, fell into disuse. It never went into extinction though. GMs still use it sparingly. It has remained popular at beginner and intermediate level where you can enjoy great success with it.
The Evans Countergambit is probably the most violent answer to the Evans Gambit. The usual responses to the Evans are the main Accepted Lines, 4...Nxb4 and 4...Bxb4 and the main Declined Lines, 4...Ba5 and 4...Bc5.
What if you're not excited about passively ceding territory in the Declined Lines? You don't find the Accepted Lines sharp enough for your tastes? There is another way.
Answer the threat with a counter-threat. 4...d5. Does White know his Evans theory as well as he ought to? What happens if he goes down the 5.bxc5 dxc4 road? Who has the edge then? What possibilities and threats lurk in this position?